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当前位置:极速PK拾>新闻中心>行业新闻>数控机床对刀具材料的要求以及刀具的种类

数控机床对刀具材料的要求以及刀具的种类

来源:http://www.llltrade.net/ 日期:2019-12-05 发布人:admin

       数控机床种类繁多,有金属切削机床、金属成型机床、特种加工机床等等,但是他们都有一个离不开的东西,那就是数控机床的刀具,数控刀具是数控机床的灵魂,下面就让我们来说一下数控机床的刀具。

数控刀具刀片回收
  数控机床对刀具材料的要求
  Requirements of CNC machine tools for cutting tool materials
  1.较高的硬度和耐磨性,刀具切削部分的硬度必须高于工件材料的硬度,刀具材料的硬度越高,其耐磨性越好。刀具材料在常温下的硬度应在HRC62以上。
  1. High hardness and wear resistance. The hardness of the cutting part of the tool must be higher than that of the workpiece material. The higher the hardness of the tool material, the better the wear resistance. The hardness of tool material at room temperature shall be above HRC62.
  2.足够的强度和韧性,刀具在切削过度中承受很大的压力,有时在冲击和振动条件下工作,要使刀具不崩刃和折断,刀具材料必须具有足够的强度和韧性,一般用抗弯强度表示刀具材料的强度,用冲击值表示刀具材料的韧性。
  2. Enough strength and toughness. The tool bears a lot of pressure during excessive cutting. Sometimes it works under impact and vibration conditions. In order to prevent the tool from breaking and breaking, the tool material must have enough strength and toughness. Generally, the bending strength is used to represent the strength of the tool material, and the impact value is used to represent the toughness of the tool material.
  3.较高的耐热性,耐热性指刀具材料在高温下保持硬度、耐磨性、强度及韧性的性能,是衡量刀具材料切削性能的主要指标,这种性能也称刀具材料红硬性。
  3. High heat resistance, heat resistance refers to the performance of tool material to maintain hardness, wear resistance, strength and toughness under high temperature, which is the main index to measure cutting performance of tool material, also known as red hardness of tool material.
  4.较好的导热性,刀具材料的导热系数越大,刀具传出的热量越多,有利于降低刀具的切削温度和提高刀具的耐用度。
  4. Good thermal conductivity, the greater the thermal conductivity of the tool material, the more heat transferred out of the tool, which is conducive to reducing the cutting temperature of the tool and improving the durability of the tool.
  5.良好的工艺性,为便于刀具的加工制造,要求刀具材料具有良好的工艺性能,如刀具材料的锻造、轧制、焊接、切削加工和可磨削性、热处理特性及高温塑性变形性能,对于硬质合金和陶瓷刀具材料还要求有良好的烧结与压力成形的性能。
  5. Good processability. In order to facilitate the machining and manufacturing of cutting tools, the cutting tool materials are required to have good processability, such as forging, rolling, welding, machining and grindability, heat treatment characteristics and high-temperature plastic deformation performance of cutting tool materials, and good sintering and pressure forming performance of cemented carbide and ceramic cutting tool materials.
  刀具材料种类
  Type of tool material
  1.高速钢
  1. high speed steel
  高速钢是由W、Cr、Mo等合金元素组成的合金工具钢,具有较高的热稳定性,较高的强度和韧性,并有一定的硬度和耐磨性,因而适合于加工有色金属和各种金属材料,又由于高速钢有很好的加工工艺性,适合制造复杂的成形刀具,特别是粉沬冶金高速钢,具有各向异性的机械性能,减少了淬火变形,适合于制造精密与复杂的成形刀具。
  High speed steel is an alloy tool steel composed of W, Cr, Mo and other alloy elements. It has high thermal stability, high strength and toughness, and certain hardness and wear resistance. Therefore, it is suitable for processing non-ferrous metals and various metal materials. Moreover, because of its good processing technology, it is suitable for manufacturing complex forming tools, especially high-speed steel of powder foam metallurgy, which has all directions The anisotropic mechanical properties reduce the quenching deformation and are suitable for the manufacture of precision and complex forming tools.
  2.硬质合金
  2. Cemented carbide
  硬质合金具有很高的硬度和耐磨性,切削性能比高速钢好,耐用度是高速钢的几倍至数十倍,但冲击韧性较差。由于其切削性能优良,因此被广泛用作刀具材料 。
  Cemented carbide has high hardness and wear resistance. Its cutting performance is better than that of high-speed steel. Its durability is several to dozens times that of high-speed steel, but its impact toughness is poor. Because of its excellent cutting performance, it is widely used as tool material.
  3.涂层刀片
  3. Coated blade
  1)CVD气相沉积法涂层 涂层物质为TiC,使硬质合金刀具耐用度提高1-3倍。涂层厚;刃口钝;利于提高速度寿命。
  1) the coating material of CVD is tic, which increases the durability of cemented carbide tool by 1-3 times. Thick coating; blunt edge; good for improving speed life.
  2)PVD物理气相沉积法涂层 涂层物质为TiN、TiAlN和Ti(C,N),使硬质合金刀具耐用度提高2-10倍。涂层薄;刃口锋利;利于降低切削力。
  2) the coating materials of PVD physical vapor deposition are tin, TiAlN and Ti (C, n), which can improve the durability of cemented carbide tools by 2-10 times. The coating is thin, the cutting edge is sharp, and the cutting force is reduced.
  ★涂层最大厚度≤16um
  ★ maximum thickness of coating ≤ 16um
  4.CBN和PCD
  4.CBN and PCD
  立方氮化硼(CBN) 立方氮化硼硬度和导热性能仅次于金刚石,有很高的热稳定性和良好的化学稳定性,因此适用于加工淬火钢、硬铸铁、高温合金和硬质合金。
  Cubic boron nitride (CBN) is second only to diamond in hardness and thermal conductivity. It has high thermal stability and good chemical stability, so it is suitable for processing quenched steel, hard cast iron, high temperature alloy and hard alloy.
  聚晶金刚体(PCD) 聚晶金刚体作为切削刀具使用时,烧结在硬质合金基体上,可对硬质合金、陶瓷、高硅铝合金等耐磨、高硬度的非金属和非铁合金材料进行精加工。
  When PCD is used as cutting tool, it can be sintered on the cemented carbide matrix to finish the wear-resistant and high hardness non-metallic and non-ferrous alloy materials such as cemented carbide, ceramics and high silicon aluminum alloy.
  ★ISO机夹刀片材料分类法★
  ★ ISO material classification of clamping blade ★
  钢 件:P05 P25 P40
  Steel parts: P05 P25 P40
  不锈钢:M05 M25 M40
  Stainless steel: M05 M25 M40
  铸 铁:K05 K25 K30
  Cast iron: K05 K25 K30
  ★数字越小表示刀片越硬,刀具的耐磨性越好,抗冲击性能较差。
  ★ the smaller the number indicates that the harder the blade is, the better the wear resistance of the tool and the poor impact resistance.
  ★数字越大表示刀片越软,刀具的抗冲击性能越好,耐磨性较差。
  ★ the larger the number indicates that the softer the blade, the better the impact resistance and the poor wear resistance of the tool.

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